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Cisco Applied Mitigation Bulletin

Identifying and Mitigating Exploitation of the Denial of Service Vulnerabilities in Cisco Unified Communications Manager and Cisco IOS Software

Advisory ID: cisco-amb-20090923-voice

http://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoAppliedMitigationBulletin/cisco-amb-20090923-voice

Revision 1.1

For Public Release 2009 September 23 16:00  UTC (GMT)


Contents

Cisco Response
Device-Specific Mitigation and Identification
Additional Information
Revision History
Cisco Security Procedures
Related Information

Cisco Response

This Applied Mitigation Bulletin, which provides identification and mitigation techniques that administrators can deploy on Cisco network devices, is a companion document to the following PSIRT Security Advisories:

  • Cisco Unified Communications Manager Session Initiation Protocol Denial of Service Vulnerability
  • Cisco IOS Software Session Initiation Protocol Denial of Service Vulnerability
  • Cisco IOS Software H.323 Denial of Service Vulnerability

Vulnerability Characteristics

There is one vulnerabilities in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager, and there are two vulnerabilities in Cisco IOS Software. The following subsections summarize these vulnerabilities:

Cisco Unified Communications Manager Session Initiation Protocol Denial of Service Vulnerability: This vulnerability can be exploited remotely without authentication and without end-user interaction. Successful exploitation of this vulnerability may cause the affected device to crash. Repeated attempts to exploit this vulnerability could result in a sustained Denial of Service (DoS) condition. The attack vector for exploitation is through Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) packets using TCP ports 5060 and 5061 or UDP port 5060. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability using spoofed packets.

This vulnerability has been assigned CVE identifier CVE-2009-2864.

Cisco IOS Software Session Initiation Protocol Denial of Service Vulnerability: This vulnerability can be exploited remotely without authentication and without end-user interaction. Successful exploitation of this vulnerability may cause the affected device to crash. Repeated attempts to exploit this vulnerability could result in a sustained DoS condition. The attack vector for exploitation is through SIP packets using TCP ports 5060 and 5061 or UDP port 5060. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability using spoofed packets.

This vulnerability has been assigned CVE identifier CVE-2009-2870.

Cisco IOS Software H.323 Denial of Service Vulnerability: This vulnerability can be exploited remotely without authentication and without end-user interaction. Successful exploitation of this vulnerability may cause the affected device to crash. Repeated attempts to exploit this vulnerability could result in a sustained DoS condition. The attack vector for exploitation is through H.323 packets using TCP port 1720.

This vulnerability has been assigned CVE identifier CVE-2009-2866.

Information about vulnerable, unaffected, and fixed software is available in the PSIRT Security Advisories, which are available at the following links:

Mitigation Technique Overview

Cisco devices provide several countermeasures for these vulnerabilities. Administrators are advised to consider these protection methods to be general security best practices for infrastructure devices and the traffic that transits the network. This section of the document provides an overview of these techniques.

Cisco IOS Software can provide effective means of exploit prevention using the following methods:

  • Transit access control lists (tACLs)
  • Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding (Unicast RPF)
  • IP source guard (IPSG)

These protection mechanisms filter and drop, as well as verify the source IP address of, packets that are attempting to exploit this vulnerabilities.

The proper deployment and configuration of Unicast RPF provides an effective means of protection against attacks that use packets with spoofed source IP addresses. Unicast RPF should be deployed as close to all traffic sources as possible.

The proper deployment and configuration of IPSG provides an effective means of protection against spoofing attacks at the access layer.

Effective means of exploit prevention can also be provided by the Cisco ASA 5500 Series Adaptive Security Appliance, the Cisco PIX 500 Series Security Appliance, and the Firewall Services Module (FWSM) for Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series switches and Cisco 7600 Series routers using the following:

  • tACLs
  • Unicast RPF

These protection mechanisms filter and drop, as well as verify the source IP address of, packets that are attempting to exploit these vulnerabilities.

Effective use of Cisco Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) event actions provides visibility into and protection against attacks that attempt to exploit this vulnerabilities.

Cisco IOS NetFlow records can provide visibility into network-based exploitation attempts.

Cisco IOS Software, Cisco ASA appliances, Cisco PIX security appliances, and FWSM firewalls can provide visibility through syslog messages and the counter values displayed in the output from show commands.

The Cisco Security Monitoring, Analysis, and Response System (Cisco Security MARS) appliance can also provide visibility through incidents, queries, and event reporting.

Risk Management

Organizations are advised to follow their standard risk evaluation and mitigation processes to determine the potential impact of these vulnerabilities. Triage refers to sorting projects and prioritizing efforts that are most likely to be successful. Cisco has provided documents that can help organizations develop a risk-based triage capability for their information security teams. Risk Triage for Security Vulnerability Announcements and Risk Triage and Prototyping can help organizations develop repeatable security evaluation and response processes.

Device-Specific Mitigation and Identification

caution Caution: The effectiveness of any mitigation technique depends on specific customer situations such as product mix, network topology, traffic behavior, and organizational mission. As with any configuration change, evaluate the impact of this configuration prior to applying the change.

Specific information about mitigation and identification is available for these devices:

Cisco IOS Routers and Switches

Mitigation: Transit Access Control Lists

To protect the network from traffic that enters the network at ingress access points, which may include Internet connection points, partner and supplier connection points, or VPN connection points, administrators are advised to deploy transit access control lists (tACLs) to perform policy enforcement. Administrators can construct a tACL by explicitly permitting only authorized traffic to enter the network at ingress access points or permitting authorized traffic to transit the network in accordance with existing security policies and configurations. A tACL workaround cannot provide complete protection against these vulnerabilities when the attack originates from a trusted source address.

The tACL policy denies unauthorized SIP packets using TCP ports 5060 and 5061 or UDP port 5060 and H.323 packets using TCP port 1720 that are sent to affected devices. In the following example, 192.168.60.0/24 is the IP address space that is used by the affected devices, and the host at 192.168.100.1 is considered a trusted source that requires access to the affected devices. Care should be taken to allow required traffic for routing and administrative access prior to denying all unauthorized traffic.

Additional information about tACLs is in Transit Access Control Lists: Filtering at Your Edge.


!-- Include explicit permit statements for trusted sources
!-- that require access on the vulnerable ports
!

access-list 150  permit tcp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 5060
access-list 150  permit tcp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 5061
access-list 150  permit tcp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 1720
access-list 150  permit udp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 5060

!
!-- The following vulnerability-specific access control entries
!-- (ACEs) can aid in identification of attacks
!

access-list 150  deny tcp any 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 5060
access-list 150  deny tcp any 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 5061
access-list 150  deny tcp any 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 1720
access-list 150  deny udp any 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 5060

!
!-- Permit or deny all other Layer 3 and Layer 4 traffic in accordance
!-- with existing security policies and configurations
!
!-- Explicit deny for all other IP traffic
!

access-list 150 deny ip any any 

!
!-- Apply tACL to interfaces in the ingress direction
!

interface GigabitEthernet0/0
 ip access-group 150 in

Note that filtering with an interface access list will elicit the transmission of ICMP unreachable messages back to the source of the filtered traffic. Generating these messages could have the undesired effect of increasing CPU utilization on the device. In Cisco IOS Software, ICMP unreachable generation is limited to one packet every 500 milliseconds by default. ICMP unreachable message generation can be disabled using the interface configuration command no ip unreachables. ICMP unreachable rate limiting can be changed from the default using the global configuration command ip icmp rate-limit unreachable interval-in-ms.

Mitigation: Spoofing Protection

Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding

Some of the vulnerabilities that are described in this document can be exploited by spoofed IP packets. The proper deployment and configuration of Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding (Unicast RPF) can provide protection mechanisms for spoofing related to the following vulnerabilities:

  • Cisco Unified Communications Manager Session Initiation Protocol Denial of Service Vulnerability
  • Cisco IOS Software Session Initiation Protocol Denial of Service Vulnerability

Unicast RPF is configured at the interface level and can detect and drop packets that lack a verifiable source IP address. Administrators should not rely on Unicast RPF to provide complete spoofing protection because spoofed packets may enter the network through a Unicast RPF-enabled interface if an appropriate return route to the source IP address exists. Administrators are advised to take care to ensure that the appropriate Unicast RPF mode (loose or strict) is configured during the deployment of this feature because it can drop legitimate traffic that is transiting the network. In an enterprise environment, Unicast RPF might be enabled at the Internet edge and the internal access layer on the user-supporting Layer 3 interfaces.

Additional information is in the Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding Loose Mode Feature Guide.

For additional information about the configuration and use of Unicast RPF, reference the Understanding Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding Applied Intelligence white paper.

IP Source Guard

IP source guard (IPSG) is a security feature that restricts IP traffic on nonrouted, Layer 2 interfaces by filtering packets based on the DHCP snooping binding database and manually configured IP source bindings. Administrators can use IPSG to prevent attacks from an attacker who attempts to spoof packets by forging the source IP address and/or the MAC address.

The proper deployment and configuration of IPSG coupled with strict mode Unicast RPF can provide the most effective means of spoofing protection to help mitigate the following vulnerabilities:

  • Cisco Unified Communications Manager Session Initiation Protocol Denial of Service Vulnerability
  • Cisco IOS Software Session Initiation Protocol Denial of Service Vulnerability

Additional information about the deployment and configuration of IPSG is in Configuring DHCP Features and IP Source Guard.

Identification: Transit Access Control Lists

After the administrator applies the tACL to an interface, the show ip access-lists command will identify the number of SIP packets using TCP ports 5060 and 5061 or UDP port 5060 and H.323 packets using TCP port 1720 that have been filtered. Administrators are advised to investigate filtered packets to determine whether they are attempts to exploit these vulnerabilities. Example output for show ip access-lists 150 follows:

router#show ip access-lists 150
Extended IP access list 150
    10 permit tcp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 5060
    20 permit tcp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 5061
    30 permit tcp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 1720
    40 permit udp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 5060
    50 deny tcp any 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 5060 (62 matches)
    60 deny tcp any 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 5061 (77 matches)
    70 deny tcp any 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 1720 (17 matches)
    80 deny udp any 192.168.60.0 0.0.0.255 eq 5060 (31 matches)
    90 deny ip any any 
router#

In the preceding example, access list 150 has dropped the following packets that are received from an untrusted host or network:

  • 62 SIP packets on TCP port 5060 for ACE line 50
  • 77 SIP packets on TCP port 5061 for ACE line 60
  • 17 H.323 packets on TCP port 1720 for ACE line 70
  • 31 SIP packets on UDP port 5060 for ACE line 80

For additional information about investigating incidents using ACE counters and syslog events, reference the Identifying Incidents Using Firewall and IOS Router Syslog Events Applied Intelligence white paper.

Administrators can use Embedded Event Manager to provide instrumentation when specific conditions are met, such as ACE counter hits. The Applied Intelligence white paper Embedded Event Manager in a Security Context provides additional details about how to use this feature.

Identification: Access List Logging

The log and log-input access control list (ACL) option will cause packets that match specific ACEs to be logged. The log-input option enables logging of the ingress interface in addition to the packet source and destination IP addresses and ports.

caution Caution: Access control list logging can be very CPU intensive and must be used with extreme caution. Factors that drive the CPU impact of ACL logging are log generation, log transmission, and process switching to forward packets that match log-enabled ACEs.

For Cisco IOS Software, the ip access-list logging interval interval-in-ms command can limit the effects of process switching induced by ACL logging. The logging rate-limit rate-per-second [except loglevel] command limits the impact of log generation and transmission.

The CPU impact from ACL logging can be addressed in hardware on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series switches and Cisco 7600 Series routers with Supervisor Engine 720 or Supervisor Engine 32 using optimized ACL logging.

For additional information about the configuration and use of ACL logging, reference the Understanding Access Control List Logging Applied Intelligence white paper.

Identification: Spoofing Protection Using Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding

With Unicast RPF properly deployed and configured throughout the network infrastructure, administrators can use the show cef interface type slot/port internal, show ip interface, show cef drop, and show ip traffic commands to identify the number of packets that Unicast RPF has dropped.

Note: The show command | begin regex and show command | include regex command modifiers are used in the following examples to minimize the amount of output that administrators will need to parse to view the desired information. Additional information about command modifiers is in the show command sections of the Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference.

router#show cef interface GigabitEthernet 0/0 internal | include drop
    
!--      CLI Output Truncated       --

  ip verify: via=rx (allow default), acl=0, drop=178, sdrop=0
router#

Note:  show cef interface type slot/port internal is a hidden command that must be fully entered at the command-line interface. Command completion is not available for it.

router#show ip interface GigabitEthernet 0/0 | begin verify
    
!--      CLI Output Truncated       --

  IP verify source reachable-via RX, allow default, allow self-ping
178 verification drops
  0 suppressed verification drops
router#


router#show cef drop
CEF Drop Statistics
Slot  Encap_fail  Unresolved Unsupported    No_route      No_adj  ChkSum_Err
RP            27           0           0         178           0           0
router#


router#show ip traffic

IP statistics:
  Rcvd:  68051015 total, 2397325 local destination
         43999 format errors, 0 checksum errors, 33 bad hop count
         2 unknown protocol, 929 not a gateway
         21 security failures, 190123 bad options, 542768 with options
  Opts:  352227 end, 452 nop, 36 basic security, 1 loose source route
         45 timestamp, 59 extended security, 41 record route
         53 stream ID, 3 strict source route, 40 alert, 45 cipso, 0 ump
         361634 other
  Frags: 0 reassembled, 10008 timeouts, 56866 couldn't reassemble
         0 fragmented, 0 fragments, 0 couldn't fragment
  Bcast: 64666 received, 0 sent
  Mcast: 1589885 received, 2405454 sent
  Sent:  3001564 generated, 65359134 forwarded
  Drop:  4256 encapsulation failed, 0 unresolved, 0 no adjacency
         178 no route, 178 unicast RPF, 0 forced drop
         0 options denied
  Drop:  0 packets with source IP address zero
  Drop:  0 packets with internal loop back IP address 
    
!--      CLI Output Truncated       --

router#

In the preceding show cef drop and show ip traffic examples, Unicast RPF has dropped 178 IP packets received globally on all interfaces with Unicast RPF configured because of the inability to verify the source address of the IP packets within the Forwarding Information Base of Cisco Express Forwarding.

Cisco IOS NetFlow

Identification: Traffic Flow Identification Using NetFlow Records

Administrators can configure Cisco IOS NetFlow on Cisco IOS routers and switches to aid in the identification of traffic flows that may be attempts to exploit these vulnerabilities. Administrators are advised to investigate flows to determine whether they are attempts to exploit these vulnerabilities or whether they are legitimate traffic flows.

router#show ip cache flow
IP packet size distribution (90784136 total packets):
   1-32   64   96  128  160  192  224  256  288  320  352  384  416  448  480
   .000 .698 .011 .001 .004 .005 .000 .004 .000 .000 .003 .000 .000 .000 .000

    512  544  576 1024 1536 2048 2560 3072 3584 4096 4608
   .000 .001 .256 .000 .010 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

IP Flow Switching Cache, 4456704 bytes
  1885 active, 63651 inactive, 59960004 added
  129803821 ager polls, 0 flow alloc failures
  Active flows timeout in 30 minutes
  Inactive flows timeout in 15 seconds
IP Sub Flow Cache, 402056 bytes
  0 active, 16384 inactive, 0 added, 0 added to flow
  0 alloc failures, 0 force free
  1 chunk, 1 chunk added
  last clearing of statistics never
Protocol         Total    Flows   Packets Bytes  Packets Active(Sec) Idle(Sec)
--------         Flows     /Sec     /Flow  /Pkt     /Sec     /Flow     /Flow
TCP-Telnet    11393421      2.8         1    48      3.1       0.0       1.4
TCP-FTP            236      0.0        12    66      0.0       1.8       4.8
TCP-FTPD            21      0.0     13726  1294      0.0      18.4       4.1
TCP-WWW          22282      0.0        21  1020      0.1       4.1       7.3
TCP-X              719      0.0         1    40      0.0       0.0       1.3
TCP-BGP              1      0.0         1    40      0.0       0.0      15.0
TCP-Frag         70399      0.0         1   688      0.0       0.0      22.7
TCP-other     47861004     11.8         1   211     18.9       0.0       1.3
UDP-DNS            582      0.0         4    73      0.0       3.4      15.4
UDP-NTP         287252      0.0         1    76      0.0       0.0      15.5
UDP-other       310347      0.0         2   230      0.1       0.6      15.9
ICMP             11674      0.0         3    61      0.0      19.8      15.5
IPv6INIP            15      0.0         1  1132      0.0       0.0      15.4
GRE                  4      0.0         1    48      0.0       0.0      15.3 
Total:        59957957     14.8         1   196     22.5       0.0       1.5

SrcIf         SrcIPaddress    DstIf         DstIPaddress    Pr SrcP DstP  Pkts
Gi0/0         192.168.11.230  Gi0/1         192.168.60.20   11 0C09 13C4     1
Gi0/0         192.168.41.86   Gi0/1         192.168.60.27   11 0B7B 13C4     2
Gi0/1         192.168.150.60  Gi0/0         10.89.16.226    06 0016 12CA     1
Gi0/0         192.168.12.110  Gi0/1         192.168.60.163  06 092A 06B8     6
Gi0/0         192.168.11.230  Gi0/1         192.168.60.20   06 0C09 13C4     1
Gi0/0         192.168.11.131  Gi0/1         192.168.60.245  06 0B66 13C5    18
Gi0/0         10.88.226.1     Gi0/1         192.168.202.22  11 007B 007B     1
Gi0/0         10.89.16.226    Gi0/1         192.168.150.60  06 12CA 0016     1
router#

In the preceding example, there are multiple flows for SIP packets on TCP port 5060 (hex value 13C4), SIP packets on TCP port 5061 (hex value 13C5), SIP packets on UDP port 5060 (hex value 13C4), and H.323 packets on TCP port 1720 (hex value 06B8).

This traffic is sent to addresses within the 192.168.60.0/24 address block, which is used by affected devices. The packets in these flows may be spoofed and may indicate an attempt to exploit these vulnerabilities. Administrators are advised to compare these flows to baseline utilization for the respective traffic and also investigate the flows to determine whether they are sourced from untrusted hosts or networks.

To view only the traffic flows for the respective packets listed above, the commands show ip cache flow | include SrcIf|_11_.*13C4 and show ip cache flow | include SrcIf|_06_.*(06B8|13C4|13C5) will display the related UDP and TCP NetFlow records as shown here:

UDP Flows

router#show ip cache flow | include SrcIf|_11_.*13C4
SrcIf         SrcIPaddress     DstIf         DstIPaddress    Pr SrcP DstP  Pkts
Gi0/0         192.168.11.230   Gi0/1         192.168.60.20   11 0C09 13C4     1
Gi0/0         192.168.41.86    Gi0/1         192.168.60.27   11 0B7B 13C4     2
router#

TCP Flows

router#show ip cache flow | include SrcIf|_06_.*(06B8|13C4|13C5)
SrcIf         SrcIPaddress     DstIf         DstIPaddress    Pr SrcP DstP  Pkts
Gi0/0         192.168.12.110   Gi0/1         192.168.60.163  06 092A 06B8     6
Gi0/0         192.168.11.230   Gi0/1         192.168.60.20   06 0C09 13C4     1
Gi0/0         192.168.11.131   Gi0/1         192.168.60.245  06 0B66 13C5    18
router#

Cisco ASA, PIX, and FWSM Firewalls

Mitigation: Transit Access Control Lists

To protect the network from traffic that enters the network at ingress access points, which may include Internet connection points, partner and supplier connection points, or VPN connection points, administrators are advised to deploy tACLs to perform policy enforcement. Administrators can construct a tACL by explicitly permitting only authorized traffic to enter the network at ingress access points or permitting authorized traffic to transit the network in accordance with existing security policies and configurations. A tACL workaround cannot provide complete protection against these vulnerabilities when the attack originates from a trusted source address.

The tACL policy denies unauthorized SIP packets using TCP ports 5060 and 5061 or UDP port 5060 and H.323 packets using TCP port 1720 that are sent to affected devices. In the following example, 192.168.60.0/24 is the IP address space that is used by the affected devices, and the host at 192.168.100.1 is considered a trusted source that requires access to the affected devices. Care should be taken to allow required traffic for routing and administrative access prior to denying all unauthorized traffic.

Additional information about tACLs is in Transit Access Control Lists: Filtering at Your Edge.


!-- Include explicit permit statements for trusted sources
!-- that require access on the vulnerable ports
!

access-list tACL-Policy extended permit tcp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq 5060
access-list tACL-Policy extended permit tcp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq 5061
access-list tACL-Policy extended permit tcp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq 1720
access-list tACL-Policy extended permit udp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq 5060

!
!-- The following vulnerability-specific access control entries
!-- (ACEs) can aid in identification of attacks
!

access-list tACL-Policy  extended deny tcp any  192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq 5060
access-list tACL-Policy  extended deny tcp any 192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq 5061
access-list tACL-Policy  extended deny tcp any 192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq 1720
access-list tACL-Policy  extended deny udp any 192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq 5060

!
!-- Permit or deny all other Layer 3 and Layer 4 traffic in accordance
!-- with existing security policies and configurations
!
!-- Explicit deny for all other IP traffic
!

access-list tACL-Policy extended deny ip any any 

!
!-- Apply tACL to interfaces in the ingress direction
!

access-group tACL-Policy in interface outside

Mitigation: Spoofing Protection Using Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding

Some of the vulnerabilities that are described in this document can be exploited by spoofed IP packets. The proper deployment and configuration of Unicast RPF can provide protection mechanisms for spoofing related to the following vulnerabilities:

  • Crafted SIP packet may cause device reload (Cisco Unified Communications Manager)
  • Crafted SIP packet may cause device reload (Cisco IOS)

Unicast RPF is configured at the interface level and can detect and drop packets that lack a verifiable source IP address. Administrators should not rely on Unicast RPF to provide complete spoofing protection because spoofed packets may enter the network through a Unicast RPF-enabled interface if an appropriate return route to the source IP address exists. In an enterprise environment, Unicast RPF might be enabled at the Internet edge and at the internal access layer on the user-supporting Layer 3 interfaces.

For additional information about the configuration and use of Unicast RPF, reference the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference for ip verify reverse-path and the Understanding Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding Applied Intelligence white paper.

Identification: Transit Access Control Lists

After the tACL has been applied to an interface, administrators can use the show access-list command to identify the number of SIP packets using TCP ports 5060 and 5061 or UDP port 5060 and H.323 packets using TCP port 1720 that have been filtered. Administrators are advised to investigate filtered packets to determine whether they are attempts to exploit these vulnerabilities. Example output for show access-list tACL-Policy follows:

firewall#show access-list tACL-Policy
access-list tACL-Policy; 11 elements
access-list tACL-Policy line 1 extended permit tcp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq sip (hitcnt=23) 
access-list tACL-Policy line 2 extended permit tcp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq 5061 (hitcnt=65) 
access-list tACL-Policy line 3 extended permit tcp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq h323 (hitcnt=12) 
access-list tACL-Policy line 4 extended permit udp host 192.168.100.1 192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq sip (hitcnt=45) 
access-list tACL-Policy line 5 extended deny tcp any 192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq sip (hitcnt=75)
access-list tACL-Policy line 6 extended deny tcp any 192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq 5061 (hitcnt=83)
access-list tACL-Policy line 7 extended deny tcp any 192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq h323 (hitcnt=16)
access-list tACL-Policy line 8 extended deny udp any 192.168.60.0 255.255.255.0 eq sip (hitcnt=94)
access-list tACL-Policy line 9 extended deny ip any any (hitcnt=3232)
firewall#

In the preceding example, access list tACL-Policy has dropped the following packets received from an untrusted host or network:

  • 75 SIP packets on TCP port 5060 for ACE line 1
  • 83 SIP packets on TCP port 5061 for ACE line 2
  • 16 H.323 packets on TCP port 1720 for ACE line 3
  • 94 SIP packets on UDP port 5060 for ACE line 4

Identification: Firewall Access List Syslog Messages

Firewall syslog message 106023 will be generated for packets denied by an access control entry (ACE) that does not have the log keyword present. Additional information about this syslog message is in Cisco Security Appliance System Log Message - 106023.

Information about configuring syslog for the Cisco ASA 5500 Series Adaptive Security Appliance or the Cisco PIX 500 Series Security Appliance is in Monitoring the Security Appliance - Configuring and Managing Logs. Information about configuring syslog on the FWSM for Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series switches and Cisco 7600 Series routers is in Monitoring the Firewall Services Module.

In the following example, the show logging | grep regex command extracts syslog messages from the logging buffer on the firewall. These messages provide additional information about denied packets that could indicate potential attempts to exploit the vulnerabilities that are described in this document. It is possible to use different regular expressions with the grep keyword to search for specific data in the logged messages.

Additional information about regular expression syntax is in Creating a Regular Expression.

firewall#show logging | grep 106023
Aug 05 2009 16:07:27: %ASA-4-106023: Deny tcp src outside:192.0.2.18/5144 
         dst inside:192.168.60.191/5060 by access-group "tACL-Policy"
Aug 05 2009 16:07:27: %ASA-4-106023: Deny tcp src outside:192.2.0.200/5245 
         dst inside:192.168.60.33/5061 by access-group "tACL-Policy"
Aug 05 2009 16:07:27: %ASA-4-106023: Deny tcp src outside:192.0.2.99/3946 
         dst inside:192.168.60.33/1720 by access-group "tACL-Policy"
Aug 05 2009 16:07:27: %ASA-4-106023: Deny udp src outside:192.0.2.18/5144 
         dst inside:192.168.60.191/5060 by access-group "tACL-Policy"
firewall#

In the preceding example, the messages logged for the tACL tACL-Policy show potentially spoofed higher layer protocol packets for the following protocols and ports sent to the address block assigned to the affected devices:

  • SIP using TCP port 5060
  • SIP using TCP port 5061
  • H.323 using TCP port 1720
  • SIP using UDP port 5060

Additional information about syslog messages for ASA and PIX security appliances is in Cisco Security Appliance System Log Messages. Additional information about syslog messages for the FWSM is in Catalyst 6500 Series Switch and Cisco 7600 Series Router Firewall Services Module Logging System Log Messages.

For additional information about investigating incidents using syslog events, reference the Identifying Incidents Using Firewall and IOS Router Syslog Events Applied Intelligence white paper.

Identification: Spoofing Protection Using Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding

Firewall syslog message 106021 will be generated for packets denied by Unicast RPF. Additional information about this syslog message is in Cisco Security Appliance System Log Message - 106021.

Information about configuring syslog for the Cisco ASA 5500 Series Adaptive Security Appliance or the Cisco PIX 500 Series Security Appliance is in Monitoring the Security Appliance - Configuring and Managing Logs. Information about configuring syslog on the FWSM for Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series switches and Cisco 7600 Series routers is in Monitoring the Firewall Services Module.

In the following example, the show logging | grep regex command extracts syslog messages from the logging buffer on the firewall. These messages provide additional information about denied packets that could indicate potential attempts to exploit these vulnerabilities that is described in this document. It is possible to use different regular expressions with the grep keyword to search for specific data in the logged messages.

Additional information about regular expression syntax is in Creating a Regular Expression.

firewall#show logging | grep 106021
Aug 05 2009 16:07:27: %ASA-1-106021: Deny UDP reverse path check from
         192.168.60.1 to 192.168.60.100 on interface outside
Aug 05 2009 16:07:27: %ASA-1-106021: Deny UDP reverse path check from
         192.168.60.1 to 192.168.60.100 on interface outside
Aug 05 2009 16:07:27: %ASA-1-106021: Deny TCP reverse path check from
         192.168.60.1 to 192.168.60.100 on interface outside

The show asp drop command can also identify the number of packets that the Unicast RPF feature has dropped, as shown in the following example:

firewall#show asp drop frame rpf-violated
  Reverse-path verify failed                        1673
firewall#

In the preceding example, Unicast RPF has dropped 1673 IP packets received on interfaces with Unicast RPF configured. Absence of output indicates that the Unicast RPF feature on the firewall has not dropped packets.

For additional information about debugging accelerated security path dropped packets or connections, reference the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference for show asp drop.

Cisco Intrusion Prevention System

Mitigation: Cisco IPS Signature Event Actions

Administrators can use Cisco Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) appliances and services modules to provide threat detection and help prevent attempts to exploit the vulnerabilities that are described in this document. These vulnerabilities may be detected by the following signatures:

  • 19259/0 - Cisco IOS/Unified Communications Manager SIP Vulnerability
  • 19420/0 - Cisco IOS/Unified Communications Manager SIP Vulnerability
  • 18479/0 - H.323 Call Signalling Vulnerability

19259/0 - Cisco IOS/Unified Communications Manager SIP Vulnerability

Beginning with signature update S437 for sensors running Cisco IPS version 6.x or 5.x, these vulnerabilities can be detected by signature 19259/0 (Signature Name: Cisco IOS/Unified Communications Manager SIP Vulnerability). Signature 19259/0 is enabled by default, triggers a High severity event, has a signature fidelity rating (SFR) of 95, and is configured with a default event action of produce-alert.

Signature 19259/0 fires when multiple packets sent using TCP port 5060 are detected. Firing of this signature may indicate a potential exploit of the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Session Initiation Protocol Denial of Service Vulnerability via the TCP transport.

19420/0 - Cisco IOS/Unified Communications Manager SIP Vulnerability

Beginning with signature update S437 for sensors running Cisco IPS version 6.x or 5.x, these vulnerabilities can be detected by signature 19420/0 (Signature Name: Cisco IOS/Unified Communications Manager SIP Vulnerability). Signature 19420/0 is enabled by default, triggers a High severity event, has a signature fidelity rating (SFR) of 95, and is configured with a default event action of produce-alert.

Signature 19420/0 fires when a single packet sent using UDP port 5060 is detected. Firing of this signature may indicate a potential exploit of the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Session Initiation Protocol Denial of Service Vulnerability via the UDP transport.

18479/0 - H.323 Call Signalling Vulnerability

Beginning with signature update S437 for sensors running Cisco IPS version 6.x or 5.x, these vulnerabilities can be detected by signature 18479/0 (Signature Name: H.323 Call Signalling Vulnerability). Signature 18479/0 is enabled by default, triggers a High severity event, has a signature fidelity rating (SFR) of 90, and is configured with a default event action of produce-alert.

Signature 18479/0 fires when multiple packets sent using TCP port 1720 are detected. Firing of this signature may indicate a potential exploit of the Cisco IOS Software H.323 Denial of Service Vulnerability.

Administrators can configure Cisco IPS sensors to perform an event action when an attack is detected. The configured event action performs preventive or deterrent controls to help protect against an attack that is attempting to exploit the vulnerabilities that are described in this document.

Exploits that use spoofed IP addresses may cause a configured event action to inadvertently deny traffic from trusted sources.

Cisco IPS sensors are most effective when deployed in inline protection mode combined with the use of an event action. Automatic Threat Prevention for Cisco IPS 6.x sensors that are deployed in inline protection mode provides threat prevention against an attack that is attempting to exploit the vulnerabilities that are described in this document. Threat prevention is achieved through a default override that performs an event action for triggered signatures with a riskRatingValue greater than 90.

Cisco IPS 5.x sensors that are deployed in inline protection mode require an event action configured on a per-signature basis. Alternatively, administrators can configure an override that can perform an event action for any signatures that are triggered and are calculated as a high-risk threat. Using an event action on sensors deployed in inline protection mode provides the most effective exploit prevention.

For additional information about the risk rating and threat rating calculation, reference Risk Rating and Threat Rating: Simplify IPS Policy Management.

Identification: IPS Signature Events

Signature: 19259/0 - Cisco IOS/Unified Communications Manager SIP Vulnerability

IPS#show events alert
evIdsAlert: eventId=1238718211601392604 severity=high vendor=Cisco
  originator:
    hostId: IPS
    appName: sensorApp
    appInstanceId: 422
  time: 2009/09/23 20:19:36 2009/09/23 15:19:36 CDT
  signature: description=Cisco IOS/Unified Communications Manager SIP Vulnerability id=19259 created=20090923 type=vulnerability version=S437
    subsigId: 0
    sigDetails: Cisco IOS/Unified Communications Manager SIP Vulnerability
    marsCategory: Penetrate/BufferOverflow/Misc
  interfaceGroup: vs0
  vlan: 0
  participants:
    attacker:
      addr: locality=OUT 192.168.208.127
      port: 60074
    target:
      addr: locality=OUT 192.168.128.27
      port: 5060
      os: idSource=unknown relevance=unknown type=unknown
  context:
    fromAttacker:

!--       Output Truncated       --

  triggerPacket:

!--       Output Truncated       --

  riskRatingValue: targetValueRating=medium 80
  threatRatingValue: 80
  interface: ge0_0
  protocol: tcp

Signature: 19420/0 - Cisco IOS/Unified Communications Manager SIP Vulnerability

IPS#show events alert
evIdsAlert: eventId=1238718211601392689 severity=high vendor=Cisco
  originator:
    hostId: R3-A041-IPS4240
    appName: sensorApp
    appInstanceId: 422
  time: 2009/09/23 20:45:20 2009/09/23 15:45:20 CDT
  signature: description=Cisco IOS/Unified Communications Manager SIP Vulnerability id=19420 created=20090923 type=vulnerability version=S437
    subsigId: 0
    sigDetails: Cisco IOS/Unified Communications Manager SIP Vulnerability
    marsCategory: Info/Misc
    marsCategory: Penetrate/BufferOverflow/Misc
  interfaceGroup: vs0
  vlan: 0
  participants:
    attacker:
      addr: locality=OUT 192.168.208.127
      port: 49097
    target:
      addr: locality=OUT 192.168.128.27
      port: 5060
      os: idSource=unknown relevance=unknown type=unknown
  triggerPacket:

!--       Output Truncated       --

  riskRatingValue: targetValueRating=medium 80
  threatRatingValue: 80
  interface: ge0_0
  protocol: udp

Signature: 18479/0 - H.323 Call Signalling Vulnerability

IPS#show events alert
evIdsAlert: eventId=1238718211601392712 severity=high vendor=Cisco
  originator:
    hostId:IPS
    appName: sensorApp
    appInstanceId: 422
  time: 2009/09/23 20:52:03 2009/09/23 15:52:03 CDT
  signature: description=H.323 Call Signalling Vulnerability id=18479 created=20090923 type=exploit version=S437
    subsigId: 0
    sigDetails: H.323 Call Signalling Vulnerability
    marsCategory: DoS/MiscServer
  interfaceGroup: vs0
  vlan: 0
  participants:
    attacker:
      addr: locality=OUT 192.168.208.127
      port: 56236
    target:
      addr: locality=OUT 192.168.208.27
      port: 1720
      os: idSource=unknown relevance=relevant type=unknown
  actions:
    denyPacketRequestedNotPerformed: true
    denyFlowRequestedNotPerformed: true
  context:
    fromAttacker:

!--       Output Truncated       --

  riskRatingValue: attackRelevanceRating=relevant targetValueRating=medium 100
  threatRatingValue: 100
  interface: ge0_0
  protocol: tcp

Cisco Security Monitoring, Analysis, and Response System

Identification: Cisco Security Monitoring, Analysis, and Response System Incidents

The Cisco Security Monitoring, Analysis, and Response System (Cisco Security MARS) appliance can create incidents regarding events that are related to the vulnerabilities that are described in this document using IPS signatures 19259/0 (Signature Name: Cisco IOS/Unified Communications Manager SIP Vulnerability), 19420/0 (Signature Name: Cisco IOS/Unified Communications Manager SIP Vulnerability) and 18479/0 (Signature Name: Cisco IOS Software H.323 Denial of Service Vulnerability). After the S437 dynamic signature update has been downloaded, using keyword NR-19259/0 for IPS signature 19259/0, NR-19420/0 for IPS signature 19420/0 or NR-18479/0 for IPS signature 18479/0, and a query type of All Matching Event Raw Messages on the Cisco Security MARS appliance will provide a report that lists the incidents created by the respective IPS signatures.

Beginning with the 4.3.1 and 5.3.1 releases of Cisco Security MARS appliances, support for the Cisco IPS dynamic signature updates feature has been added. This feature downloads new signatures from Cisco.com or from a local web server, correctly processes and categorizes received events that match those signatures, and includes them in inspection rules and reports. These updates provide event normalization and event group mapping, and they also enable the MARS appliance to parse new signatures from the IPS devices.

caution Caution:  If dynamic signature updates are not configured, events that match these new signatures appear as usnknown event type in queries and reports. Because MARS will not include these events in inspection rules, incidents may not be created for potential threats or attacks that occur within the network.

By default, this feature is enabled but requires configuration. If it is not configured, the following Cisco Security MARS rule will be triggered:

System Rule: CS-MARS IPS Signature Update Failure

When this feature is enabled and configured, administrators can determine the current signature version downloaded by MARS by selecting Help > About and reviewing the IPS Signature Version value.

Additional information about dynamic signature updates and instructions for configuring dynamic signature updates are available for the Cisco Security MARS 4.3.1 and 5.3.1 releases.

Additional Information

THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS AND DOES NOT IMPLY ANY KIND OF GUARANTEE OR WARRANTY, INCLUDING THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR USE. YOUR USE OF THE INFORMATION ON THE DOCUMENT OR MATERIALS LINKED FROM THE DOCUMENT IS AT YOUR OWN RISK. CISCO RESERVES THE RIGHT TO CHANGE OR UPDATE THIS DOCUMENT AT ANY TIME.

Revision History

Revision 1.1

2009-September-24

Include Cisco IPS signature information

Revision 1.0

2009-September-23

Initial public release

Cisco Security Procedures

Complete information on reporting security vulnerabilities in Cisco products, obtaining assistance with security incidents, and registering to receive security information from Cisco, is available on Cisco's worldwide website at http://www.cisco.com/web/about/security/psirt/security_vulnerability_policy.html. This includes instructions for press inquiries regarding Cisco security notices. All Cisco security advisories are available at http://www.cisco.com/go/psirt.

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