Cisco Security Advisory

Information Leakage Using IPv6 Routing Header in Cisco IOS and Cisco IOS-XR

Advisory ID: cisco-sa-20070808-IOS-IPv6-leak

http://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20070808-IOS-IPv6-leak

Revision 1.1

For Public Release 2007 August 8 16:00  UTC (GMT)


Summary

Cisco IOS and Cisco IOS XR contain a vulnerability when processing specially crafted IPv6 packets with a Type 0 Routing Header present. Exploitation of this vulnerability can lead to information leakage on affected IOS and IOS XR devices, and may also result in a crash of the affected IOS device. Successful exploitation on an affected device running Cisco IOS XR will not result in a crash of the device itself, but may result in a crash of the IPv6 subsystem.

Cisco has made free software available to address this vulnerability for affected customers. There are workarounds available to mitigate the effects of the vulnerability.

This advisory is posted at http://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20070808-IOS-IPv6-leak.

Note: The August 08, 2007 publication includes four Security Advisories and one Security Response. The advisories all affect IOS, one additionally affects Cisco Unified Communications Manager as well. Each advisory lists the releases that correct the vulnerability described in the advisory, and the advisories also detail the releases that correct the vulnerabilities in all four advisories. Individual publication links are listed below:

Affected Products

Vulnerable Products

This vulnerability affects devices that are configured to use the IPv6 protocol and are running affected versions of one of the following types of software:

  • Cisco IOS
  • Cisco IOS XR

To determine the software running on a Cisco IOS product, log in to the device and issue the show version command to display the system banner. Cisco IOS software will identify itself as "Internetwork Operating System Software" or simply "IOS." On the next line of output, the image name will be displayed between parentheses, followed by "Version" and the Cisco IOS release name. Other Cisco devices will not have the show version command, or will give different output.

The following example shows output from a device running an IOS image:

Router>show version
Cisco IOS Software, 7200 Software (C7200-IK9S-M), Version 12.3(14)T1, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986-2005 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Thu 31-Mar-05 08:04 by yiyan

Additional information about Cisco IOS release naming is available at the following link: http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/620/1.html.

To determine whether IPv6 is configured on an IOS device, look for the lines containing ipv6 in the Cisco IOS configuration, as shown in the following example:

Router#show running-config | include ipv6
ipv6 address 2001:0DB8:C18:1::/64 eui-64

If the configuration contains a line or lines similar to the above example, IPv6 is configured on the device. The exact IPv6 address will vary in your configuration.

To determine whether IPv6 is configured on an IOS XR device, look for the following lines in in the Cisco IOS XR configuration:

Router-IOS_XR#show ipv6 interface | include IPv6
IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is fe80::216:47ff:fee1:d987 
IPv6 is disabled, link-local address unassigned
IPv6 is disabled, link-local address unassigned

If the output contains at least one line that reads IPv6 is enabled, IPv6 is configured on the device.

Products Confirmed Not Vulnerable

No other Cisco products are currently known to be affected by this vulnerability. In particular, the following devices are known not to be affected:

  • Cisco PIX and ASA Appliances
  • Cisco Firewall Services Module (FWSM)
  • Cisco MDS

Cisco PIX, ASA, and FWSM firewall products do not process packets containing IPv6 Routing headers. All such packets will be silently dropped.

Details

Successful exploitation of the vulnerability described in this document may result in swapping memory between the destination IPv6 address in the IPv6 packet header and 16 bytes from the packet buffer memory. Memory that can be accessed through this vulnerability can not be further than 1500 bytes from the packet header start.

This vulnerability is documented for Cisco IOS as Cisco Bug ID CSCef77013 ( registered customers only) and for Cisco IOS XR as Cisco Bug ID CSCsi74127 ( registered customers only) .

Vulnerability Scoring Details

Cisco is providing scores for the vulnerabilities in this advisory based on the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS). The CVSS scoring in this Security Advisory is done in accordance with CVSS version 1.0.

Cisco will provide a base and temporal score. Customers can then compute environmental scores to assist in determining the impact of the vulnerability in individual networks.

Cisco PSIRT will set the bias in all cases to normal. Customers are encouraged to apply the bias parameter when determining the environmental impact of a particular vulnerability.

CVSS is a standards based scoring method that conveys vulnerability severity and helps determine urgency and priority of response.

Cisco has provided an FAQ to answer additional questions regarding CVSS at http://www.cisco.com/web/about/security/intelligence/cvss-qandas.html.

Cisco has also provided a CVSS calculator to help compute the environmental impact for individual networks at http://intellishield.cisco.com/security/alertmanager/cvss.

CSCef77013 - Tighter parameter checking for IPv6 ( registered customers only)

Calculate the environmental score of CSCef77013

CVSS Base Score - 8

Access Vector

Access Complexity

Authentication

Confidentiality Impact

Integrity Impact

Availability Impact

Impact Bias

Remote

Low

Not Required

Partial

Partial

Complete

Normal

Temporal Score - 6.6

Exploitability

Remediation Level

Report Confidence

Functional

Official Fix

Confirmed

CSCsi74127 - Processing of IPv6 headers ( registered customers only)

Calculate the environmental score of CSCsi74127

CVSS Base Score - 7

Access Vector

Access Complexity

Authentication

Confidentiality Impact

Integrity Impact

Availability Impact

Impact Bias

Remote

Low

Not Required

Partial

Partial

Partial

Normal

Temporal Score - 5.8

Exploitability

Remediation Level

Report Confidence

Functional

Official Fix

Confirmed

Vulnerability Scoring Details

Impact

Successful exploitation of this vulnerability may result in the swapping of memory between the destination IPv6 address field and packet buffer memory. This can lead to the leakage of data from the buffer memory in the form of an IPv6 destination address and, in a worst case scenario for devices running Cisco IOS, a complete crash of the IOS device.

Note: Given that the destination IPv6 address will contain the contents of a buffer memory, the packet may not get routed outside of the local network. Depending on the exact destination address the packet may get dropped by the next router or on the targeted router itself if it does not have route to the newly formed IPv6 address.

In the case of Cisco IOS XR, successful exploitation will not crash the whole device but only lead to a restart of the IPv6 subsystem. Successful repeated exploitation of this vulnerability may lead to a sustained denial of service (DoS) of all upper layer services that use IPv6 as the transport protocol but not the whole device.

Software Versions and Fixes

When considering software upgrades, also consult http://www.cisco.com/go/psirt and any subsequent advisories to determine exposure and a complete upgrade solution.

In all cases, customers should exercise caution to be certain the devices to be upgraded contain sufficient memory and that current hardware and software configurations will continue to be supported properly by the new release. If the information is not clear, contact the Cisco Technical Assistance Center ("TAC") or your contracted maintenance provider for assistance.

Each row of the Cisco IOS software table (below) names a Cisco IOS release train. If a given release train is vulnerable, then the earliest possible releases that contain the fix (along with the anticipated date of availability for each, if applicable) are listed in the "First Fixed Release" column of the table. The "Recommended Release" column indicates the releases which have fixes for all the published vulnerabilities at the time of this Advisory. A device running a release in the given train that is earlier than the release in a specific column (less than the First Fixed Release) is known to be vulnerable. Cisco recommends upgrading to a release equal to or later than the release in the "Recommended Releases" column of the table.

For further information about how Cisco IOS is built, numbered and maintained, please see the following URL: http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/620/1.html

Major Release

Availability of Repaired Releases

Affected 12.0-Based Release

First Fixed Release

Recommended Release

12.0

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0DA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0DB

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0DC

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0S

12.0(32)S8; available 21-Aug-07

12.0(32)S8; available 21-Aug-07

12.0SC

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0SL

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0SP

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0ST

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.0(32)S8 available 21-Aug-07

12.0(32)S8; available 21-Aug-07

12.0SX

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.0(32)S8 available 21-Aug-07

12.0(32)S8; available 21-Aug-07

12.0SY

12.0(32)SY4; available 21-Aug-07

12.0(32)SY4; available 21-Aug-07

12.0SZ

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.0(32)S8 available 21-Aug-07

 

12.0T

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0W

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0WC

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0WT

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XB

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XC

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XD

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XE

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XF

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XG

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XH

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XI

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XJ

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XK

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XL

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XM

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XN

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XQ

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XR

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XS

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XV

Not Vulnerable

 

12.0XW

Not Vulnerable

 

Affected 12.1-Based Release

First Fixed Release

Recommended Release

12.1

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1AA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1AX

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1AY

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1AZ

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1CX

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1DA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1DB

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1DC

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1E

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1EA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1EB

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1EC

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1EO

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1EU

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1EV

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1EW

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1EX

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1EY

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1EZ

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1GA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1GB

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1T

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XB

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XC

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XD

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XE

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XF

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XG

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XH

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XI

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XJ

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XK

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XL

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XM

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XN

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XO

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XP

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XQ

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XR

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XS

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XT

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XU

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.1XV

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.1XW

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XX

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XY

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1XZ

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1YA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1YB

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.1YC

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.1YD

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.1YE

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1YF

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1YG

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1YH

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1YI

Not Vulnerable

 

12.1YJ

Not Vulnerable

 

Affected 12.2-Based Release

First Fixed Release

Recommended Release

12.2

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2B

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2BC

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(17a)BC

12.3(17b)BC8

12.3(21a)BC3

12.2BW

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2BY

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2BZ

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2CX

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(17a)BC

12.3(17b)BC8

12.3(21a)BC3

12.2CY

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2CZ

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2DA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2DD

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2DX

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2EU

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(25)EWA10

All Cat4K platforms:

12.2(25)EWA10

12.2(31)SGA3

12.2(37)SG1

12.2(40)SG; available Oct-07

12.2EW

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(25)EWA10

All Cat4K platforms:

12.2(25)EWA10

12.2(31)SGA3

12.2(37)SG1

12.2(40)SG; available Oct-07

12.2EWA

12.2(25)EWA10

All Cat4K platforms:

12.2(25)EWA10

12.2(31)SGA3

12.2(37)SG1

12.2(40)SG; available Oct-07

12.2EX

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2EY

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2EZ

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(25)SEE4

12.2(25)SEE4; available 07-Aug-07

12.2FX

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2FY

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2FZ

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(35)SE

12.2(40)SE; available 24-Aug-07

12.2(37)SE1

12.2(35)SE5

12.2IXA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2IXB

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2IXC

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2IXD

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2JA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2JK

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2MB

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2MC

12.2(15)MC2h

12.2(15)MC2j

12.2(15)MC2j

12.2S

12.2(14)S18

12.2(18)S13

12.2(20)S14

12.2(25)S13

12.2(30)S

12.2(25)S13

12.2(14)S19

12.2SB

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2SBC

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2SE

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2SEA

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(25)SEE4

12.2(25)SEE4; available 07-Aug-07

12.2SEB

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(25)SEE4

12.2(25)SEE4; available 07-Aug-07

12.2SEC

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(25)SEE4

12.2(25)SEE4; available 07-Aug-07

12.2SED

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(25)SEE4

12.2(25)SEE4; available 07-Aug-07

12.2SEE

12.2(25)SEE4

12.2(25)SEE4

12.2SEF

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2SEG

12.2(25)SEG3

12.2(25)SEG3

12.2SG

12.2(25)SG2; available 13-Aug-07

12.2(31)SG1

12.2(31)SG

12.2(37)SG

12.2(40)SG; available 24-Oct-07

All Cat4K platforms:

12.2(25)SG2

12.2(37)SG1

12.2(31)SG2

12.2(40)SG; available Oct-07

12.2SGA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2SL

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2SM

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2SO

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2SRA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2SRB

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2SU

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2SV

12.2(27)SV2

12.2(27)SV3

12.2(27)SV1

12.2(28)SV1

12.2(29)SV

12.2(29a)SV

12.2(29b)SV

12.2(29)SV4; available 14-Oct-07

12.2SVA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2SVC

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2SW

12.2(25)SW11

12.2(25)SW11

12.2SX

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(18)SXE

 

12.2SXA

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(18)SXE

 

12.2SXB

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(18)SXE

12.2(18)SXF10

12.2SXD

Vulnerable; contact TAC

 

12.2SXE

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2SXF

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2SXH

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2SY

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(18)SXE

 

12.2SZ

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(30)S

12.2(25)S13

12.2(14)S19

12.2T

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2TPC

12.2(8)TPC10c; available 17-Aug-07

12.2(8)TPC10c

12.2UZ

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2VZ

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2XA

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2XB

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2XC

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2XD

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2XE

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2XF

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(17a)BC

12.3(17b)BC8

12.3(21a)BC3

12.2XG

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2XH

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2XI

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2XJ

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2XK

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2XL

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2XM

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2XN

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2XQ

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2XR

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2XS

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2XT

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2XU

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2XV

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2XW

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2YA

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2YB

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2YC

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2YD

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2YE

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(30)S

12.2(25)S13

12.2(14)S19

12.2YF

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2YG

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2YH

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2YJ

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2YK

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2YL

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2YM

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2YN

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2YO

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2YP

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2YQ

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2YR

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2YS

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2YT

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2YU

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2YV

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2YW

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2YX

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2YY

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2YZ

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(30)S

12.2(25)S13

12.2(14)S19

12.2ZA

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.2(18)SXE

 

12.2ZB

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2ZC

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2ZD

Vulnerable; contact TAC

 

12.2ZE

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(15)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.2ZF

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2ZG

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2ZH

12.2(13)ZH9; available 17-Aug-07

12.2(13)ZH9

12.2ZJ

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.2ZL

Vulnerable, first fixed in 12.3(14)T for the Cisco 17xx;

first fixed in 12.4(1) for the Cisco 3200;

first fixed in 12.3(7)XR7, available 13-Aug-07 for the ICS7750

 

12.2ZP

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2ZR

Vulnerable; contact TAC

 

12.2ZU

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2ZW

Not Vulnerable

 

12.2ZY

Not Vulnerable

 

Affected 12.3-Based Release

First Fixed Release

Recommended Release

12.3

12.3(15)

12.3(16)

12.3(17a)

12.3(18)

12.3(19)

12.3(20)

12.3(21)

12.3(22)

12.3(23)

12.3(23)

12.3(20a)

12.3(21b)

12.3(22a)

12.3(18a)

12.3(19a); available 16-Aug-07

12.3(17c); available 16-Aug-07

12.3B

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.3BC

12.3(17a)BC

12.3(21)BC

12.3(17b)BC8

12.3(21a)BC3

12.3BW

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.3JA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.3JEA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.3JEB

Not Vulnerable

 

12.3JK

Not Vulnerable

 

12.3JL

Not Vulnerable

 

12.3JX

Not Vulnerable

 

12.3T

Limited platform support is available

12.3(11)T12; available 16-Aug-07

12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.3TPC

Not Vulnerable

 

12.3VA

Not Vulnerable

 

12.3XA

12.3(2)XA6

12.3(2)XA6

12.3XB

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.3XC

12.3(2)XC5

12.3(2)XC5

12.3XD

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.3XE

12.3(2)XE5; available 17-Aug-07

12.3(2)XE5

12.3XF

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.3XG

Vulnerable; contact TAC

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.3XH

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.3XI

12.3(7)XI10a; available 21-Aug-07

12.3(7)XI10a; available 21-Aug-07

12.3XJ

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)YX

12.3(14)YX9; available 13-Aug-07

12.3XK

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)T

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.3XQ

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.4(1)

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.3XR

12.3(7)XR7; available 17-Aug-07

12.3(7)XR7; available 17-Aug-07

12.3XS

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.4(1)

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.3XU

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.4(2)T

12.4(11)T3

12.4(9)T5; available 24-Aug-07

12.4(2)T6; available 20-Aug-07

12.4(4)T8; available 28-Aug-07

12.4(6)T8

12.4(15)T1

12.3XW

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)YX

12.3(14)YX9; available 13-Aug-07

12.3XY

Not Vulnerable

 

12.3YA

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.4(1)

12.4(12c)

12.4(3h)

12.4(5c)

12.4(8d); available 03-Sep-07

12.4(7f)

12.4(16)

12.4(10c)

12.4(13d)

12.3(8)YG6; available 16-Aug-07

12.3YD

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.4(2)T

12.4(11)T3

12.4(9)T5; available 24-Aug-07

12.4(2)T6; available 20-Aug-07

12.4(4)T8; available 28-Aug-07

12.4(6)T8

12.4(15)T1

12.3YF

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)YX

12.3(14)YX9; available 13-Aug-07

12.3YG

12.3(8)YG6; available 16-Aug-07

12.3(8)YG6; available 16-Aug-07

12.3YH

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.4(2)T

12.4(11)T3

12.4(9)T5; available 24-Aug-07

12.4(2)T6; available 20-Aug-07

12.4(4)T8; available 28-Aug-07

12.4(6)T8

12.4(15)T1

12.3YI

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.4(2)T

12.4(11)T3

12.4(9)T5; available 24-Aug-07

12.4(2)T6; available 20-Aug-07

12.4(4)T8; available 28-Aug-07

12.4(6)T8

12.4(15)T1

12.3YJ

Vulnerable; first fixed in 12.3(14)YQ

12.4(11)T3

12.4(9)T5; available 24-Aug-07

12.4(2)T6; available 20-Aug-07

12.4(4)T8; available 28-Aug-07

12.4(6)T8

12.4(15)T1

12.3YK

12.3(11)YK3; available 20-Aug-07

12.3(11)YK3; available 20-Aug-07

12.3YM

Not Vulnerable

 

12.3YQ

Not Vulnerable

 

12.3YS

Not Vulnerable

 

12.3YT

Not Vulnerable

 

12.3YU

Not Vulnerable

 

12.3YX

Not Vulnerable

 

12.3YZ

12.3(11)YZ2; available 17-Aug-07

12.3(11)YZ2; available 17-Aug-07

Affected 12.4-Based Release

First Fixed Release

Recommended Release

There are no affected 12.4 based releases

Cisco IOS XR

The following table lists fixed Cisco IOS XR software.

Cisco IOS XR Version

SMU ID

SMU Name

3.2.3

AA01920

hfr-base-3.2.3.CSCsi74127

3.2.4

AA01919

hfr-base-3.2.4.CSCsi74127

3.2.6

AA01918

hfr-base-3.2.6.CSCsi74127

3.3.0

AA01917

hfr-base-3.3.0.CSCsi74127

3.3.1

AA01916

hfr-base-3.3.1.CSCsi74127

3.3.2

AA01915

hfr-base-3.3.2.CSCsi74127

3.3.3

AA01914

hfr-base-3.3.3.CSCsi74127

3.3.4

AA01913

hfr-base-3.3.4.CSCsi74127

3.4.0

AA01912

hfr-base-3.4.0.CSCsi74127

3.4.1

AA01911

hfr-base-3.4.1.CSCsi74127

3.4.2

AA02124

hfr-base-3.4.2.CSCsi74127

3.3.1

AA01910

c12k-base-3.3.1.CSCsi74127

3.4.0

AA01909

c12k-base-3.4.0.CSCsi74127

3.4.1

AA01908

c12k-base-3.4.1.CSCsi74127

IOS XR Package Installation Envelopes (PIE) can be downloaded from File Exchange at: https://upload.cisco.com/cgi-bin/swc/fileexg/main.cgi?CONTYPES=IOS-XR ( registered customers only) . Installation instructions are included in the accompanying .txt files.


Workarounds

The workaround consists of filtering packets that contain Type 0 Routing header(s). Special attention must be paid not to filter packets with Type 2 Routing headers as that would break a Mobile IPv6 deployment. Depending on which Cisco IOS software release is used, and if Mobile IPv6 is deployed, there are several potential workarounds. Because any packet type (TCP, UDP, ICMP) can be used to trigger this vulnerability, care must be taken when implementing a workaround to account for a spoofed IPv6 packet.

For devices running Cisco IOS XR and have mobile IPv6 deployed, there is no workaround.

For additional information about protection mechanisms against IPv6 Routing headers, reference the "Countermeasures for the Malicious Use of IPv6 Type 0 Routing Headers" Applied Intelligence white paper, available at

http://www.cisco.com/web/about/security/intelligence/countermeasures-for-ipv6-type0-rh.html.

Devices Running Cisco IOS

Control Plane Policing

The following example is applicable irrespectively if Mobile IPv6 is, or is not, deployed.

Control Plane Policing (CoPP) can be used to block untrusted IPv6 packets with Type 0 Routing Headers present to the affected device. Cisco IOS software releases 12.0S, 12.2SX, 12.2S, 12.3T, 12.4, and 12.4T support the CoPP feature. CoPP may be configured on a device to protect the management and control planes to minimize the risk and effectiveness of direct infrastructure attacks by explicitly permitting only authorized traffic sent to infrastructure devices in accordance with existing security policies and configurations. The following example can be adapted to your network.


!-- Permit all IPv6 Routing Header Type 0 (Source Route) packets
!-- sent to any IPv6 address configured on interfaces of the  
!-- affected device or IPv6 link-local addresses. This traffic 
!-- will be policed and dropped by the CoPP feature. 
! 
 
ipv6 access-list DENY-IPv6-RH0
 permit ipv6 any any routing-type 0

!
!-- Permit (Police or Drop)/Deny (Allow) all other Layer3 and Layer4   
!-- traffic in accordance with existing security policies and        
!-- configurations for traffic that is authorized to be sent               
!-- to infrastructure devices.                
!                                              
!-- Create a Class-Map for traffic to be policed by the CoPP feature.
!

class-map match-all drop-IPv6-RH0-class
  match access-group name DENY-IPv6-RH0

!                                                  
!-- Create a Policy-Map that will be applied to the Control-Plane of
!-- the device.  
 
policy-map drop-IPv6-RH0-traffic
  class drop-IPv6-RH0-class
	drop

!                                                              
!-- Apply the Policy-Map to the Control-Plane of the device.

control-plane
  service-policy input drop-IPv6-RH0-traffic

!

In the above CoPP example, the access control list entries (ACEs), which match the potential exploit packets with the "permit" action, result in these packets being discarded by the policy-map "drop" function.

Additional information on the configuration and use of the CoPP feature can be found at http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/iosswrel/ps6537/ps6586/ps6642/prod_white_paper0900aecd804fa16a.html and http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/12_3t/12_3t4/feature/guide/gtrtlimt.html.

Mobile IPv6 is Not Deployed

For IOS releases prior to 12.2(15)T, the workaround is to use ACLs to filter all packets that contain Routing headers. This method can not distinguish between Type 0 and Type 2 Routing headers, so it is not suitable if Mobile IPv6 is deployed.

The following example shows how to configure such ACLs:

Router(config)#ipv6 access-list deny-sourcerouted 
Router(config-ipv6-acl)#deny ipv6 any <myaddress1> routing 
Router(config-ipv6-acl)#deny ipv6 any <myaddress2> routing 
Router(config-ipv6-acl)#permit ipv6 any any

Router(config-ipv6-acl)#exit
Router(config)#interface Ethernet0
Router(config-if)#ipv6 traffic-filter deny-sourcerouted in

In the above example <myaddressX> is an IPv6 address. One example of such an address is 2001:DB8:900D::1/64. The ACL must be applied to all interfaces and include all IPv6 addresses that are configured. If an interface has more than one IPv6 address configured then all addresses must be covered by the ACLs. This also includes all loopback and link local addresses for each interface.

The alternative to enumerating all IPv6 addresses is to use the statement deny ipv6 any any routing. While that simplifies the resulting ACL, it will also filter all transit IPv6 traffic with Routing headers 0 and 2. The example in which all configured IPv6 addresses are enumerated will not affect transit traffic. This is applicable to all other examples in this advisory.

Starting from the IOS release 12.2(15)T, a new command, ipv6 source-route was introduced. If applied, it will drop any IPv6 packet with Type 0 Routing Headers received by the device itself (for example, IPv6 destination address matches any of the IPv6 addresses configured on the device). The command does not affects transit traffic. The configuration is given in the following example:

Router(config)#no ipv6 source-route 

This is a global command and it applies to all interfaces. The command is applicable on all defined IPv6 addresses, including the link local and loopback address, and on all interfaces.

Mobile IPv6 is Deployed

There is no workaround for devices running a Cisco IOS release prior to 12.2(15)T. Starting from the IOS release 12.2(15)T, a new command, ipv6 source-route was introduced. If applied, it will drop any IPv6 packet with Type 0 Routing Headers received by the device itself (for example, IPv6 destination address matches any of the IPv6 addresses configured on the device). The command does not affects transit traffic. The configuration is given in the following example:

Router(config)#no ipv6 source-route 

This is a global command and it applies to all interfaces. The command is applicable on all defined IPv6 addresses, including the link local and loopback address, and on all interfaces.

In IOS 12.4(2)T, a new keyword routing-type is added to IPv6 ACLs. It can be used to selectively permit or deny specific routing types.

Router(config)#ipv6 access-list deny-sourcerouted
Router(config-ipv6-acl)#deny ipv6 any <myaddress1> routing-type 0 
Router(config-ipv6-acl)#permit ipv6 any any 
Router(config)#interface Ethernet0
Router(config-if)#ipv6 traffic-filter deny-sourcerouted in

The above IPv6 ACL must be applied inbound on all interfaces on which an IPv6 address is configured.

Devices Running Cisco IOS XR

Mobile IPv6 is Not Deployed

The workaround is to use ACLs to filter all packets that contain Routing headers. This method can not distinguish between Type 0 and Type 2 Routing headers, so it is not suitable if Mobile IPv6 is deployed.

The following example shows how to configure such ACLs:

Router-IOS_XR#configure terminal
Router-IOS_XR(config)#ipv6 access-list deny-ipv6-type0-rh                  
Router-IOS_XR(config-ipv6-acl)#deny ipv6 any host 2001:0DB8:12::3 routing 
Router-IOS_XR(config-ipv6-acl)#permit ipv6 any any
Router-IOS_XR(config-ipv6-acl)#exit
Router-IOS_XR(config)#interface GigabitEthernet 0/0/0/1
Router-IOS_XR(config-if)#ipv6 access-group deny-ipv6-type0-rh ingress
Router-IOS_XR(config-if)#end

The ACL must be applied to all interfaces and include all IPv6 addresses that are configured. If an interface has more than one IPv6 address configured then all addresses must be covered by the ACLs. This also includes all loopback and link local addresses for each interface.

Mobile IPv6 is Deployed

There is no workaround if Mobile IPv6 is deployed.

Obtaining Fixed Software

Cisco will make free software available to address this vulnerability for affected customers. This advisory will be updated as fixed software becomes available. Prior to deploying software, customers should consult their maintenance provider or check the software for feature set compatibility and known issues specific to their environment.

Customers may only install and expect support for the feature sets they have purchased. By installing, downloading, accessing or otherwise using such software upgrades, customers agree to be bound by the terms of Cisco's software license terms found at http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-license-agreement.html, or as otherwise set forth at Cisco.com Downloads at http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/sw-usingswc.shtml.

Do not contact either "psirt@cisco.com" or "security-alert@cisco.com" for software upgrades.

Customers with Service Contracts

Customers with contracts should obtain upgraded software through their regular update channels. For most customers, this means that upgrades should be obtained through the Software Center on Cisco's worldwide website at http://www.cisco.com.

Customers Using Third-Party Support Organizations

Customers whose Cisco products are provided or maintained through prior or existing agreement with third-party support organizations such as Cisco Partners, authorized resellers, or service providers should contact that support organization for guidance and assistance with the appropriate course of action in regards to this advisory.

The effectiveness of any workaround or fix is dependent on specific customer situations such as product mix, network topology, traffic behavior, and organizational mission. Due to the variety of affected products and releases, customers should consult with their service provider or support organization to ensure any applied workaround or fix is the most appropriate for use in the intended network before it is deployed.

Customers Without Service Contracts

Customers who purchase direct from Cisco but who do not hold a Cisco service contract and customers who purchase through third-party vendors but are unsuccessful at obtaining fixed software through their point of sale should get their upgrades by contacting the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC). TAC contacts are as follows.

  • +1 800 553 2447 (toll free from within North America)
  • +1 408 526 7209 (toll call from anywhere in the world)
  • e-mail: tac@cisco.com

Have your product serial number available and give the URL of this notice as evidence of your entitlement to a free upgrade. Free upgrades for non-contract customers must be requested through the TAC.

Refer to http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml for additional TAC contact information, including special localized telephone numbers and instructions and e-mail addresses for use in various languages.

Exploitation and Public Announcements

The Cisco PSIRT is not aware of any public announcements or malicious use of the vulnerability described in this advisory.

This vulnerability was initially rectified internally within Cisco during hardening IPv6 protocol. It was subsequently re-discovered and reported by Tom Cross from IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force.

Status of This Notice: Final

THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS AND DOES NOT IMPLY ANY KIND OF GUARANTEE OR WARRANTY, INCLUDING THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR USE. YOUR USE OF THE INFORMATION ON THE DOCUMENT OR MATERIALS LINKED FROM THE DOCUMENT IS AT YOUR OWN RISK. CISCO RESERVES THE RIGHT TO CHANGE OR UPDATE THIS DOCUMENT AT ANY TIME.

A stand-alone copy or Paraphrase of the text of this document that omits the distribution URL in the following section is an uncontrolled copy, and may lack important information or contain factual errors.


Distribution

This advisory is posted on Cisco's worldwide website at http://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20070808-IOS-IPv6-leak.

In addition to worldwide web posting, a text version of this notice is clear-signed with the Cisco PSIRT PGP key and is posted to the following e-mail and Usenet news recipients.

  • cust-security-announce@cisco.com
  • first-teams@first.org
  • bugtraq@securityfocus.com
  • vulnwatch@vulnwatch.org
  • cisco@spot.colorado.edu
  • cisco-nsp@puck.nether.net
  • full-disclosure@lists.grok.org.uk
  • comp.dcom.sys.cisco@newsgate.cisco.com

Future updates of this advisory, if any, will be placed on Cisco's worldwide website, but may or may not be actively announced on mailing lists or newsgroups. Users concerned about this problem are encouraged to check the above URL for any updates.


Revision History

Revision 1.1

2007-August-09

Added fix information for IOS XR v3.4.2 running on CRS-1.

Revision 1.0

2007-August-08

Initial public release.

Cisco Security Procedures

Complete information on reporting security vulnerabilities in Cisco products, obtaining assistance with security incidents, and registering to receive security information from Cisco, is available on Cisco's worldwide website at http://www.cisco.com/web/about/security/psirt/security_vulnerability_policy.html. This includes instructions for press inquiries regarding Cisco security notices. All Cisco security advisories are available at http://www.cisco.com/go/psirt.


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