The Cisco Product Security Incident Response Team (PSIRT) is responsible for responding to Cisco product security incidents. The Cisco PSIRT is a dedicated, global team that manages the receipt, investigation, and public reporting of information about security vulnerabilities and issues related to Cisco products and networks. Cisco defines a security vulnerability as an unintended weakness in a product that could allow an attacker to compromise the integrity, availability, or confidentiality of the product. The Cisco PSIRT adheres to ISO/IEC 29147:2014
The on-call Cisco PSIRT works 24 hours a day with Cisco customers, independent security researchers, consultants, industry organizations, and other vendors to identify possible security vulnerabilities and issues with Cisco products and networks.
Reporting or Obtaining Support for a Suspected Security Vulnerability
Individuals or organizations that are experiencing a product security issue are strongly encouraged to contact the Cisco PSIRT. Cisco welcomes reports from independent researchers, industry organizations, vendors, customers, and other sources concerned with product or network security. The minimal data needed for reporting a security issue is a description of the potential vulnerability.
Please contact the Cisco PSIRT using one of the following methods.
+1 877 228 7302 (toll-free within North America)
+1 408 525 6532 (International direct-dial)
Support requests that are received via email are typically acknowledged within 48 hours. Ongoing status on reported issues will be determined as needed.
Cisco encourages the encryption of sensitive information that is sent to Cisco in email messages. The Cisco PSIRT supports encrypted messages via PGP/GNU Privacy Guard (GPG). The Cisco PSIRT public key (key ID 0xC905F733) is available on multiple public key servers.
General Security-Related Queries
For general security concerns about Cisco products, the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) can provide configuration assistance and technical assistance with security matters. The TAC can also help with nonsensitive security incidents and software upgrades for security bug fixes. Use the following information to contact the Cisco TAC.
+1 800 553 2447 (Toll-free within North America) +1 408 526 7209 (International direct-dial)
Additional TAC numbers: Customer Service Contacts
Receiving Security Vulnerability Information from Cisco
There are several ways to stay connected and receive the latest security vulnerability information from Cisco. Review the following table, and subsequent summaries, to determine the appropriate option.
Cisco Security Advisories that provide information about Critical and High severity security vulnerabilities are clear signed with the Cisco PSIRT PGP public key and posted to the firstname.lastname@example.org mailing list.
Only the initial release and major revisions to Cisco Security Advisories for Critical and High severity security vulnerabilities are posted via email. If a document undergoes a minor revision, the update will be posted to Cisco.com without an accompanying email message. Customers who require automated alerts for minor revisions should subscribe to the Cisco Security Advisory Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feed or Cisco Notification Service. All security advisories on Cisco.com are displayed in chronological order, with the most recent advisories and updates appearing at the top of the page.
Cisco Security Advisories that provide information about Medium severity security vulnerabilities are posted to Cisco.com and appear in the Cisco Security Advisory RSS feed.
The Cisco PSIRT may also send Informational advisories to the cust-security-announce mailing list. An Informational advisory is not used as a disclosure mechanism for any Cisco vulnerability, but as a method to share information on security incidents that may impact Cisco products and which may be of interest to Cisco customers.
This mailing list is an external list that allows subscribers to receive Cisco security announcements.
To subscribe to this mailing list, send an email message to email@example.com. (The content of the message does not matter.) You will receive confirmation, instructions, and a list policy statement.
To unsubscribe from this mailing list, send an email message to firstname.lastname@example.org. (The content of the message does not matter.) You will receive a confirmation notice, to which you need to reply. On replying to this notice you will be unsubscribed from the cust-security-announce mailing list. You will not be unsubscribed unless you reply to this confirmation email.
Please note that requests to unsubscribe must be sent to email@example.com and not to the firstname.lastname@example.org list itself.
You must send messages from the account that will be subscribed to or unsubscribed from the list. We do not accept subscribe or unsubscribe requests for one account that are sent from a second account.
You may also request access to this mailing list by sending an email message to email@example.com.
Cisco security vulnerability information is also available via RSS feeds from Cisco.com. These feeds are free and do not require an active Cisco.com registration. For information on how to subscribe to the RSS feeds, visit the Cisco Security RSS Feeds page.
Cisco PSIRT openVuln API
The Cisco PSIRT openVuln API is a RESTful API that allows customers to obtain Cisco security vulnerability information in different machine-consumable formats. To learn about accessing and using the API, visit the PSIRT page on the Cisco DevNet website.
Cisco Notification Service
The Cisco Notification Service allows users to subscribe and receive important Cisco product and technology information, including Cisco Security Advisories. This service provides an improved unified subscription experience allowing users to choose the timing of notifications, as well as the notification delivery method (email message or RSS feed). The level of access will be determined by the subscriber's relationship with Cisco.
Commitment to Product Security and Integrity at Cisco
Cisco product development practices specifically prohibit any intentional behaviors or product features that are designed to allow unauthorized device or network access, exposure of sensitive device information, or a bypass of security features or restrictions. These include, but are not limited to:
Undisclosed device access methods or "backdoors"
Hardcoded or undocumented account credentials
Covert communication channels
Undocumented traffic diversion
Cisco considers such product behaviors to be serious vulnerabilities. Cisco will address any issues of this nature with the highest priority and encourages all parties to report suspected vulnerabilities to the Cisco PSIRT for immediate investigation. Internal and external reports of these vulnerabilities will be managed and disclosed under the terms of the Cisco Security Vulnerability Policy.
The following graphic illustrates the Cisco PSIRT process at a high level and provides an overview of the vulnerability lifecycle, disclosure, and resolution process.
Figure 1. Cisco Product Security Incident Response Process
The following are the steps in the process illustrated in Figure 1:
Awareness: PSIRT receives notification of security incident.
Active Management: PSIRT prioritizes and identifies resources.
Fix Determined: PSIRT coordinates fix and impact assessment.
Communication Plan: PSIRT sets timeframe and notification format.
Integration and Mitigation: PSIRT engages experts and executives.
Notification: PSIRT notifies all customers simultaneously.
Feedback: PSIRT incorporates feedback from customers and Cisco internal input.
The Cisco PSIRT investigates all reports regardless of the Cisco software code version or product lifecycle status. Issues will be prioritized based on the potential severity of the vulnerability and other environmental factors. Ultimately, the resolution of a reported incident may require upgrades to products that are under active support from Cisco.
Throughout the investigative process, the Cisco PSIRT strives to work collaboratively with the source of the report (incident reporter) to confirm the nature of the vulnerability, gather required technical information, and ascertain appropriate remedial action. When the initial investigation is complete, results will be delivered to the incident reporter along with a plan for resolution and public disclosure. If the incident reporter disagrees with the conclusion, the Cisco PSIRT will make every effort to address those concerns.
In the case of incidents whereby an agreement cannot be reached through the normal process, incident reporters may escalate by contacting the Cisco Technical Assistance Center and requesting the director of the global Cisco PSIRT team.
During any investigation, the Cisco PSIRT manages all sensitive information on a highly confidential basis. Internal distribution is limited to those individuals who have a legitimate need to know and can actively assist in the resolution. Similarly, the Cisco PSIRT asks incident reporters to maintain strict confidentiality until complete resolutions are available for customers and have been published by the Cisco PSIRT on the Cisco website through the appropriate coordinated disclosure.
With the agreement of the incident reporter, the Cisco PSIRT may acknowledge the reporter's contribution during the public disclosure of the vulnerability.
Cisco PSIRT works with third-party coordination centers such as CERT/CC, CERT-FI, JP-CERT, or CPNI to manage a coordinated industry disclosure for vulnerabilities reported to Cisco that may impact multiple vendors (for example, a generic protocol issue). In those situations, the Cisco PSIRT either will assist the incident reporter in contacting the coordination center, or may do so on that individual's behalf.
If a reported vulnerability involves a vendor product, the Cisco PSIRT will notify the vendor directly, coordinate with the incident reporter, or engage a third-party coordination center.
The Cisco PSIRT will coordinate with the incident reporter to determine the frequency of status updates of the incident and documentation updates.
Cisco will protect customer-specific data at all times throughout this process. Specifically, Cisco will not share any customer-specific data unless directed to do so by the affected customer, or as required by a legal investigation.
Assessing Security Risk — Common Vulnerability Scoring System and the Security Impact Rating
Cisco uses version 3.0 of the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) as part of its standard process of evaluating reported potential vulnerabilities in Cisco products. The CVSS model uses three distinct measurements or scores that include Base, Temporal, and Environmental calculations. Cisco will provide an evaluation of the Base vulnerability score, and in some instances, will provide a Temporal vulnerability score. End users are encouraged to compute the Environmental score based on their network parameters. The combination of all three scores should be considered the final score, which represents a moment in time and is tailored to a specific environment. Organizations are advised to use this final score to prioritize responses in their own environments.
Note: Cisco adopted Common Vulnerability Scoring System Version 3 (CVSSv3) in January 2017.
In addition to CVSS scores, Cisco uses the Security Impact Rating (SIR) as a way to categorize vulnerability severity in a simpler manner. The SIR is based on the CVSS Qualitative Severity Rating Scale of the base score, may be adjusted by PSIRT to account for Cisco-specific variables, and is included in every Cisco Security Advisory. Cisco uses the following guidelines to determine the Cisco Security Advisory type. Security Advisories for Critical and High SIRs include fixed software information.
Cisco Security Advisory
Fix information in the Security Advisory and bug.
Detailed fix information for Cisco IOS and IOS XE Software obtained via Cisco IOS Software Checker.
Issues with a Low SIR are typically published as a bug Release Note Enclosure (RNE) and not as part of a Security Advisory.
Cisco reserves the right to deviate from these guidelines in specific cases if additional factors are not properly captured in the CVSS score.
If there is a security issue with a third-party software component that is used in a Cisco product, Cisco typically uses the CVSS score provided by the third party. In some cases, Cisco may adjust the CVSS score to reflect the impact to the Cisco product.
If there is a vulnerability in a third-party software component that is used in a Cisco product, Cisco typically uses the CVSS score provided by the component creator. Cisco may adjust the CVSS score to reflect the impact to Cisco products.
Cisco will consider a third-party vulnerability “high profile” if it meets the following criteria:
The vulnerability exists in a third-party component.
Multiple Cisco products are affected.
The CVSS score is 5.0 or above.
The vulnerability has gathered significant public attention.
The vulnerability is likely to have exploits available and is expected to be, or is being, actively exploited.
For high profile, third-party vulnerabilities, Cisco will begin assessing all potentially impacted products that have not reached End-of-Support (with priority given to those products that have not reached End-of-Software-Maintenance) and publish a Security Advisory within 24 hours of initial disclosure by the third party. All known affected Cisco products will be detailed in an update to the initial Security Advisory, which will be published within 7 days of Cisco's initial disclosure. A Cisco bug will be created for each vulnerable product so that registered customers can view them via the Cisco Bug Search Toolkit. Third-party vulnerabilities that are not classified as high profile will be disclosed in a Release Note Enclosure.
Types of Security Publications
In all security publications, Cisco discloses the minimum amount of information required for an end user to assess the impact of a vulnerability and any potential steps needed to protect their environment. Cisco does not provide vulnerability details that could enable someone to craft an exploit.
Cisco provides the following types of security-related publications via the Cisco Security portal on Cisco.com.
Cisco Security Advisories
Cisco Security Advisories provide detailed information about security issues that directly involve Cisco products and require an upgrade, fix, or other customer action. Security Advisories are used to disclose vulnerabilities with a Critical, High, or Medium Security Impact Rating.
All Cisco Security Advisories that disclose vulnerabilities with a Critical, High, or Medium Security Impact Rating include an option to download Common Vulnerability Reporting Framework (CVRF) content. CVRF is an industry standard designed to depict vulnerability information in machine-readable format (XML files). This machine-readable content can be used with other tools to automate the process of interpreting data contained in a Security Advisory. CVRF content can be downloaded directly from each Security Advisory. For more information about CVRF, see the preceding link.
The Informational type of Cisco Security Advisories addresses issues that require a response to information discussed in a public forum, such as a blog or discussion list. Informational advisories are normally published if a third party makes a public statement about a Cisco product vulnerability. Informational advisories may also be used to proactively notify customers about a security-related issue that is not a vulnerability.
Cisco Event Responses
Cisco Event Responses provide information about security events that have the potential for widespread impact on customer networks, applications, and devices. Cisco Event Responses contain summary information, threat analysis, and mitigation techniques that feature Cisco products. They are normally published under the following circumstances:
If a significant security vulnerability exists in a vendor's product that could affect a Cisco product due to interoperation with the vendor's product or use of the network as a vector for exploitation
In response to the release of Cisco IOS and IOS XE Software bundled publications
Release Note Enclosures
Release Note Enclosures are used to disclose issues with a Low Security Impact Rating. All Cisco bug IDs that are disclosed by Cisco are available for registered customers to view in the Cisco Bug Search Tool.
If a Cisco Security Advisory references a bug, the bug entry in the Cisco Bug Search Tool will link to the relevant Cisco Security Advisory.
Any Cisco bug that has been evaluated by the Cisco PSIRT will include a "PSIRT Evaluation" section in its Release Note Enclosure. This new section will include, where Cisco deems appropriate and relevant, base and temporal CVSS scores and a CVE ID. Customers are invited to use this additional information at their discretion and correlate Cisco bugs with industry events. This information is not intended to supplement any standard Cisco warranties applicable to the software as stated in the Cisco End User License Agreement.
Free software updates will not be provided for issues that are disclosed through a Release Note Enclosure. Customers who wish to upgrade to a software version that includes fixes for those issues should contact their normal support channels. Any exception to this policy will be determined solely at the discretion of Cisco.
The following table summarizes the methods used to notify customers about the aforementioned security publications. Exceptions may be made on a case-by-case basis to increase communication for a given document.
Bug Search Tool
Cisco Security Advisory - Critical and High Severity
Cisco Security Advisory - Medium Severity
Cisco Security Advisory - Informational
Cisco Event Response
Release Note Enclosure
If one or more of the following conditions exist, Cisco will publicly disclose Cisco Security Advisories:
The Cisco PSIRT has completed the incident response process and determined that enough software patches or workarounds exist to address the vulnerability, or subsequent public disclosure of code fixes is planned to address high-severity vulnerabilities.
The Cisco PSIRT has observed active exploitation of a vulnerability that could lead to increased risk for Cisco customers. For this condition, Cisco will accelerate the publication of a security announcement describing the vulnerability that may or may not include a complete set of patches or workarounds.
There is the potential for increased public awareness of a vulnerability affecting Cisco products that could lead to increased risk for Cisco customers. For this condition, Cisco will accelerate the publication of a security announcement describing the vulnerability that may or may not include a complete set of patches or workarounds.
All Cisco security publications are disclosed to customers and the public simultaneously. Cisco reserves the right to deviate from this policy on an exception basis to ensure access to Cisco.com for software patch availability.
When coordinating disclosure with third parties, the Cisco PSIRT will attempt to provide notification of any changes to the Cisco PSIRT public disclosure schedule.
In direct response to customer feedback, Cisco releases bundles of Cisco IOS and IOS XE Software Security Advisories at 1600 GMT on the fourth Wednesday in March and September each year. This schedule applies to the disclosure of Cisco IOS and IOS XE Software vulnerabilities and does not apply to the disclosure of vulnerabilities in other Cisco products.
All Other Products
Cisco generally discloses Cisco Security Advisories at 1600 GMT on any given Wednesday.
Cisco reserves the right to publish an individual Security Advisory for Cisco IOS Software, Cisco IOS XE Software, or other products outside the published schedule. Conditions under which an out-of-cycle publication may occur include, but are not limited to, the following:
Cisco detects heightened public awareness of a serious vulnerability
Cisco learns of active exploitation of a vulnerability
Cisco works with a third-party coordination center to publicly disclose a vulnerability
Incident Response Eligibility
Customers with service contracts receive incident response assistance for any incident in which a Cisco product plays a significant role, regardless of whether there is an identified problem with a Cisco product.
All customers, regardless of contract status, receive free incident response assistance, similar to that offered to contract customers, for any incident that involves a known or reasonably suspected security vulnerability in a Cisco product.
Cisco reserves the right to determine the type and degree of assistance it may offer in connection with any incident and to withdraw from any incident at any time. Cisco may offer customers incident response services free of charge. Cisco may give special consideration to security incidents that involve actual or potential threats to persons, property, or the Internet as well as requests from law enforcement agencies or formal incident response teams.
Security Software Updates
PSIRT will investigate and disclose vulnerabilities in Cisco products and services from the date of First Commercial Shipment (FCS) to the Last Day of Support. Cisco customers with service contracts that entitle them to regular software updates should obtain security fixes through their usual update channels, generally from the Cisco website. Cisco recommends contacting the TAC only with specific and imminent problems or questions.
As a special customer service, and to improve the overall security of the Internet, Cisco may offer customers free software updates to address high-severity security problems. The decision to provide free software updates is made on a case-by-case basis. Refer to the Cisco security publication for details. Free software updates will typically be limited to Cisco Security Advisories.
If Cisco has offered a free software update to address a specific issue, noncontract customers who are eligible for the update may obtain it by contacting the Cisco TAC using any of the means described in the General Security-Related Queries section of this document. To verify their entitlement, individuals who contact the TAC should have available the URL of the Cisco document that is offering the update.
Customers may only install and expect support for software versions and feature sets for which they have purchased a license. By installing, downloading, accessing, or otherwise using such software upgrades, customers agree to follow the terms of the Cisco software license. Additionally, customers may only download software for which they have a valid license, procured from Cisco directly, or through a Cisco authorized reseller or partner. In most cases this will be a maintenance upgrade to software that was previously purchased. Free security software updates do not entitle customers to a new software license, additional software feature sets, or major revision upgrades.
After the End of Sale, the availability of security fixes provided by Engineering is defined in the product's End of Sale bulletin. (See the End-of-Life Policy for details.) The End of Sale bulletin may define one or more of the following milestones.
The End of SW Maintenance milestone identifies the last date Cisco may release a software maintenance release that could include security fixes.
The End of Engineering Support for the Cisco TAC milestone is the last date that Cisco Engineering may consider the repair and support of confirmed hardware or software defects for a product.
The End of Security and Vulnerability Fixes milestone identifies the last date that Cisco may provide support for network-impacting security vulnerabilities.
Note: If the End of Security and Vulnerability Fixes milestone is not defined, the End of SW Maintenance and End of Engineering Support milestones will determine the last date Cisco Engineering will provide fixes.
All aspects of this process are subject to change without notice and on a case-by-case basis. No particular level of response is guaranteed for any specific issue or class of issues.
Last Updated: 2018 August 31
This document is part of the Cisco Security portal. Cisco provides the official information contained on the Cisco Security portal in English only.
This document is provided on an "as is" basis and does not imply any kind of guarantee or warranty, including the warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use. Your use of the information in the document or materials linked from the document is at your own risk. Cisco reserves the right to change or update this document without notice at any time.